The RED 6540 Reporter

Phonemic Awareness. 2

Suggested activities for helping children to develop skill in phonemic awareness: 2

read aloud from books which use alliteration and rhyming word-play, and as a follow-up activity, encourage children to dictate their own rhyming poems (Dr. Seuss books are an excellent choice). 3

Helpful Websites. 3

SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 10-pages 296-298. 5

CONTEXT CLUES AS A WORD IDENTIFICATION STRATEGY.. 5

The Cons of Context Clues in Word Identification. 8

The Pros of Context Clues in Word Identification. 8

Word Identifiers in the Full-Alphabetic Phase 4 of Word Learning: 8

Structural Analysis. 8

Instructional Procedures. 9

Recognition of Words When Their Spellings Have Changed Because an Ending Has Been Added. 9

Contractions. 9

Compound Words. 9

Prefixes: 10

Procedure for instruction of prefixes: 10

PREFIX ACTIVITY.. 10

Suffixes. 10

Suffixes defined- a word part affixed to the end of a root word or base. 10

 

 

Volume 1, Issue 11 Vocabulary. 12

Rich Development p. 309-319. 12

General Features of an Intensive Program of Word Development 12

Specific Activities Requiring In-Depth Processing. 12

Involve students in process-oriented semantic mapping. 12

Process Oriented semantic mapping. 12

Product oriented semantic map. 12

Use of Word Maps for Different Parts of Speech. 13

Semantic Feature Analysis. 13

Semantic Features. 13

Venn Diagrams. 13

Experiences with synonyms and antonyms. 13

Experiences with Multiple Meanings of Words. 14

Increase vocabulary learning through writing. 14

 

Independent Word Learning from Text 320 – 327. 14

Incidental Learning. 14

Knowledge of word meaning can improve reading.  Reading can improve knowledge of word meaning. 14

Some Books to Read Aloud to Middle School Students. 16

Help students learn to use context to determine meanings of words when it is helpful. 17

Increase Dictionary Skills. 17

LEARNING WORDS FROM ORAL LANGUAGE ENCOUNTERS. 17

Real Experiences –. 17

Vicarious Experience. 17

PREREADING STRATEGY.. 19

Somebody Wanted But So Organizer 21

 


 


The RED 6540 Reporter

Volume 1, Chapter 10                                                                      April 5, 2004

Phonemic Awareness

A phoneme is the smallest part of spoken language.  Phonemic awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the individual phonemes (sounds) in spoken words.  With phonemic awareness, a person is able to understand that words are made up of a sequence of sounds.  Research has shown that a preschool child’s level of phonemic awareness predicts his/her future success in learning to

read. 

 

Types of manipulations expected at the beginning stage of phonemic

awareness include:

 

1.      Phoneme Isolation

“What is the first sound you hear in pat?”

2.      Phoneme Blending

“When I say, p-a-t, what word is that?”

3.      Phoneme Segmentation

“Tap out the number of sounds you hear when I say, pat,” (3)

or, “What sounds do you hear when I say, pat?” (p-a-t).

4.      Phoneme Deletion

“Say pat, without the p (given as a sound, not as a letter).”

5.      Phoneme Differentiation

“Listen to these words, and tell me which begins with a different

sound: 

pat, fat, pig, pen.”

 

When providing explicit instruction for helping children to develop phonemic awareness, research indicates that skills should be introduced in sequence from the easiest task to the most difficult.  Lundberg et al (1988), suggests this sequence:  a) rhyming activities (mimed and child-created); b) hearing syllables in words; c) hearing initial sounds of words; and d) hearing sounds within

words.

 

Suggested activities for helping children to develop skill in phonemic awareness:

1.      word games requiring children to blend syllables to form words (or individual phonemes to form words);

2.      naming pictures and sorting according to names beginning with the same sound (to increase awareness of likenesses and differences among sounds;

read aloud from books which use alliteration and rhyming word-play, and as a follow-up activity, encourage children to dictate their own rhyming poems (Dr. Seuss books are an excellent choice).

 

Helpful Websites

Books that Build Phonemic Awareness

 

Reading Quest - Think Pair Share

 

BIG IDEAS in Beginning Reading

 

SpellBee.org

 

About Phonological Awareness

 

Assessment and Instruction in Phonological Awareness

 

Beginning Reading and Phonological Awareness for Students with Learning Disabilities

 

Between the Lions

 

BIG IDEAS in Begining Reading- Alphabetic Principle

 

BIG IDEAS in Begining Reading - Phonemic Awareness

 

Children's Books for Teaching Phonemic Awareness: An Annotated Bibliography

 

Doing What Works: Effective Technology in the Classroom

 

Dolch Reading Books

 

Effective Decoding Instruction for Diverse

Learners: Alphabetic Principle

 

Elkonin Boxes

 

How Now Brown Cow: Phoneme Awareness Activities for Collaborative Classrooms

 

Music to Build Reading and Language Skills

 

Overview of Learning to Read and Write:

Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children

 

Phonemic Awareness Activities

 

Phonemic Awareness in Young Children

 

Reading Software from FDLRS

 

SCORE Language Arts Activities

 

Straight Talk about Reading: Key Components of Early Reading Instruction

 

Structural Analysis

 

Teachers in Action [video]

 

Teaching Decoding

 

Using Elkonin Boxes

 

Wallach and Wallach's Tongue Twisters

 

Word Activities from Speech Teach

 

Reading Links - Secondary Level

 

Yopp-Singer

 

Zelo Nursery Rhymes

 

Between the Lions: Kindergarten Teachers' Guide

 

Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test: Staff Development Tool

 

Making Friends with Phonemes

 

Parent Talk

 

Tampa Reads

 

Reading Genie

 

The Reflective Teacher: Parents Are Teachers Too

 

Connecting State Standards to the Cognitive

Framework of Reading

 

FLaRE Center

 

LD Online

 

NEARStar (Network for English Acquisition and

Reading)

 

Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness and

Phonics: What are they? How do they differ?

 

ERIC Digest: Phonemic Awareness: An Important

Early Step in Learning to Read

 

Partnership for Reading: Bringing Scientific Evidence to Learning

 

Phonemic Awareness and the Teaching of Reading

 

Questions about Reading

 

What Every Teacher Should Know about

Phonological Awareness

 

Why Reading Is Not a Natural Process

 

Working and Playing with Words

 

 

SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 10-pages 296-298.

CONTEXT CLUES AS A WORD IDENTIFICATION STRATEGY

1. The use of context clues was considered the prime strategy for identifying unknown words.  Teachers were often advised to direct students' attention to the context surrounding a word before prompting other word identification strategies or sometimes in lieu of any other strategy. Students were routinely asked to skip words, read to the end of the sentence, and then attempt to guess a word that would fit the sentence. For a long time it was assumed that proficient readers did just that, predicting what unknown words would be by using expectancies based on their knowledge of language and the world.

 

2. For the skilled and unskilled readers-context clues were presumed to be the most valuable aid to word identification.  This theory seemed to hold some logic and was certainly well meaning.   However, much to the surprise of many reading authorities, when researcher investigated widely held assumptions about the value of context clues, this did not prove to be the case.

 

3. Proficient readers do not use context clues as their primary word identification strategy; identifications are based on visual and phonemic information in the words themselves.

 

4. Context clues may assist with the meaning of the word that has multiple definitions, therefore could be ambiguous.  This occurs after the word has been identified.

 

5.  Context may also help a competent reader use word pattern information more quickly.  This does not replace the need to use letter and sound knowledge.

 

6.  According research and developing readers the benefit of using context clues are as follows:

a. The strategy is used most by the students who are least skillful.  Those readers who make the least head way tend to remain in a stage where use of context is the central way to read words (Biemiller, 1970).  (Briemiller, 1970) summarized these findings by saying that "the longer a student stay in the early, context-emphasizing phase without showing as increase in the use of graphic information the poorer the reader he is at the end of the year.

 

7. The use of context clues is now considered to be a compensatory strategy (Stanovich, 1980) since it is used as a compensation because the reader does not yet have control of more productive methods of word recognition and identification (Daneman, 1981; e.g.), 1991; Stanovich, 1993-94).

 

8.  Context clues does not provide the support once believed. The easiest word to predict from context clues are function words (Gough, 1983).  These are the words that occur most often in print and students are most likely to recognized at sight, making the use of context unnecessary. Individual content words occur less frequently, making it more probable that there will be a greater challenge in identifying them.

 

9. Content word are the words most difficult to determined from context; for those words where a word identification strategy is needed, context may be helpful.  According to a number of studies, natural text is not especially predictable.   The chance that a student can guess the next word in a passage turn out to be about 20 to 35% and for content words the percentage is less.   (Gough, 1983) found that content words, those that carry a lot of meaning of the passage, could be predicted only about 10% of the time.

 

10. Juel (1991) noted that no matter how imperfect letter sound relationship are, they still are more reliable than context clues in word identification.

 

11.  One major criticism of encouraging students is to use context to the exclusion of other cueing systems is that they will not study a word's letter and sound and therefore will not have any information to recognize the word the next time they encounter it. This would not be a problem if context habitually conveyed the unknown word.

 

12. Another reason for teachers to refrain from prompting poor readers to use context clues as their chief word identification strategy is that for context to operate productively, the reader must know the words surrounding the unfamiliar word, and this often is not the situation with unskilled readers (Ehri, 1991).

13.  The use of context clues does have some value. Until readers are adept at using visual and sound information to determine the identities of many words, there are times when context will provide a clue to an unfamiliar word (though this may be less often than once was believed).

 

14. Context can also limit the possibilities of what a word might be when a student is trying to identify it; for example, when students are reading independently and their identification strategies lead them to believe a word is one of two similar words but they are not sure which, then context may solve this dilemma.

 

15.  Context provides a check on words that have been produced through use of other word identification strategies, which is indeed a valuable function. The use of context to assist comprehension has been upheld by research (e.g., Baker & Brown, 1984) However, context clues are no longer regarded to be as helpful as once was supposed for learning or recognizing words.

 

In conclusion, For a large number of students in remedial programs, the major concerns/problems are lack of automatic word recognition and deficiencies in word identification strategies. A focus on any single approach (phonics) for the remediation of these difficulties to the exclusion of others, is detrimental to student progress. The nature of English words and English text structure requires use of a variety of clues as unknown words are encountered.  Consideration of a student's phase of word learning must also be taken into account.

 

Proficient readers, like poor readers, also may encounter unknown words in their reading.  Capable readers, however, have multiple strategies at their disposal.  This fact should be an indicator to teachers that it is necessary to teach a variety of word learning strategies to their students.

Context Clues Weighed and Found Lacking in Word Identification

A surprising development in the world of education reveals that using context clues as the primary method of identifying unknown words is one of the least effective means to do so.  Research bears out that proficient readers rely on more efficient ways of word identification like visual and phonemic clues, rather than context clues.  They look for information within words themselves to help with decoding those words.  Conversely, poor readers tend to rely primarily on one or two strategies to decode words.  The least skillful readers tend to put all of their “eggs” in the basket of context clues as primary sources of word identification.  Studies tell us that unless these readers learn to use graphic information within words, and rely solely on context clues, they make the least amount of progress academically, and may actually regress in a year’s time. 

 

The Cons of Context Clues in Word Identification

1.      There are many times when context does not convey the real meaning of words, and can even be confusing or misleading.

Example:  I  ___________ a witch of Halloween.

                       (was, saw)

2.      Natural text is not very predictable.  When reading at grade level, context provides clues for only about 20-35% of words.  It is an even lower percentage in content areas where there is only about a 10% chance that context will help with identifying unknown words.  Content words are the hardest to determine from context.  These factors lead to a high probability of miscue rates.

3.      The easiest words to predict are usually function words (prepositions, conjunctions, and articles).  Since most of these words are frequently used in print, they usually become sight words, and then context is not needed for identification.

4.      When context clues are used consistently in lieu of other cueing systems, other cueing systems like letter-sound relationships, phonics, and structural analysis suffer.  Students fail to use other kinds of information to help them recognize words so that the next time they come upon them in print, they are still unable to decode them.

5.      Many times, readers must be familiar with surrounding words in order to use context clues.  Since that is a problem for many struggling readers, it is a fairly ineffective strategy.

 

The Pros of Context Clues in Word Identification

1.      Context clues can sometimes provide hints to readers who have underdeveloped word attack skills and sight word vocabularies.

2.      When independent readers are able to use other word identification strategies to identify words and are able to narrow down word possibilities to a choice between two similar words, context may help in determining the correct word.

3.      Context clues can provide a check system for words that have been determined through the use of other word identification strategies.

4.      Context clues may help to confirm the meaning of a word with multiple meanings.

 

So, is using context clues a bad thing?  The answer is that it can be when it is used as the exclusive or primary way of identifying and decoding words.  It tends to be the most effective for those established readers, who usually need the least amount of help in a traditional reading class.  Readers must be taught a variety of strategies for word identification so that when one system fails, they have other back-up systems in place to help them reconstruct meaning when it begins to fall apart.

Word Identifiers in the Full-Alphabetic Phase 4 of Word Learning:

Structural Analysis

 

            Structural analysis is a strategy used to identify a word by paying

attention to the meaningful parts that make up the unknown word.

 

Instructional Procedures

 

            Inflectional endings are affixes (word parts) that are added to the end

of words to change the meaning of the words.  These inflectional endings

may make words plural, third-person singular verb present tense - past

tense, present participle, possessives, and comparisons in adjectives and adverbs.

 

The word slide is a manipulative for practicing inflectional ends.

 

Recognition of Words When Their Spellings Have Changed Because an Ending Has Been Added

 

            Many poor readers may be able to recognize a root word, but when you add inflectional endings to root words they may not be able to recognize the

word.  This occurs especially when the spelling of the root word is changed (dry and ed changes the spelling to dried.)

 

            You may use a board game using words that are spelled correctly and

incorrectly to test whether the student actually recognizes the word.

 

Contractions

 

            Many poor readers find them confusing because letters are left out of the

word.  Direct practice in recognizing contractions and their relationships to the words from which they derive often is needed remedial programs.

 

Compound Words

 

There are three types of compound words: 

  1. longer words formed by putting together two small words,
  2. hyphenated words
  3. words like ice cream that are not physically connected, but having a special meaning when used jointly.

 

Compound Dominoes is an activity enjoyed by the students while practicing recognition of compound words.  Make a list of compound words.  Make a list of compound words on strips.  Match the compound words to make a new compound word. (lighthouse flyball   gamebird  bathhouse  coatroom)

 

Prefixes:

Definition: a prefix is a meaningful word part affixed to the beginning of

a root word.

 

Procedure for instruction of prefixes:

  1. Be sure  students recognize prefixes they are to use. ( Suggestion:provide a chart that includes all the prefixes you will teach , such as the fifteen common prefixes Stauffer listed)
  2. In direct teaching and in practice choose root words the students already know to affix the prefixes.
  3. Give attention to changes in meanings with the added prefixes.
  4. Group the prefixes you wish to teach by connotation, i.e. un, non,  and dis  are all negative prefixes. The next group could be positive and so on.
  5. Note the differences in absorbed and active prefixes. For example, the words adjacent and combine were once prefixed, but today we do not use them  in this way. This information would probably be used with older students as a point of interest.
  6. Active prefixes are those word parts we use to add to root words, such as re+pay= repay and sub+zero = subzero.

 

Certainly, more time will be directed to  teaching the active prefixes.

 

PREFIX ACTIVITY

 

Card Game matching 15 common prefixes to root words known to the student.

The game can be played alone  (at the desk or at a learning center) or

with a partner. A check sheet will tell the student if he/she is correct.

The student will also put a list of errors/ successes in a box for the

teacher to check at the end.

 

Game pieces- a deck of prefix cards and a deck of familar words to match,

an answer key  and an info note to the teacher about success / errors.

 

Suffixes

Suffixes defined- a word part affixed to the end of a root word or base

word.

 

The instructional suggestions for suffixes is generally the same as the

instructions for prefixes:

 

  1. Provide a list of suffixes on a chart, include their meanings
  2. Go over them with the students making sure they learn the meanings.
  3. Identify root/base words- again use familiar vocabulary. Model and practice the use of the suffixes.
  4. Give attention to the meanings of the suffixes.
  5. Suffixes can alter meanings of words by changing grammatical functions-for example "ness "added to dark (darkness) and happy (happiness) take adjectives and make them nouns.

 

 


Volume 1, Issue 11 Vocabulary                                                         April 5, 2004

p. 300  - 309

 

Rich Development p. 309-319

General Features of an Intensive Program of Word Development

  1. Varied experiences
  2. different levels of clarification
  3. reflective and dynamic activities
  4. substantial practice
  5. formal definitions
  6. student use in a variety of contexts
  7. active use in student created situations
  8. seeing relationships with other words.

 

  1. Make Connections or links between known information and new meanings, with the goal of constructing representations of word meaning. (Beck and McKeown, p. 807)

 

 

 

Specific Activities Requiring In-Depth Processing

Involve students in process-oriented semantic mapping.

            aka structured overview, cognitive mapping, word maps

Process Oriented semantic mapping

as a pre-reading activity, lead a discussion about a vocabulary which is key to understanding something that will be happening in the story.  Create a semantic map with ideas elicited from the discussion about the vocabulary word. 

Product oriented semantic map

The teacher identifies words related to a concept and writes them on cards.  After reading, students organize the word cards into a semantic map to help them see relationships.

 

Using these semantic map and mapping techniques is helpful with science or social studies reading that has a heavy load of concepts.

 

Use of Word Maps for Different Parts of Speech

For a noun, elicit:

  • What is it?
  • What is it like?
  • What are some examples?

 

For an adjective:

  • What does it describe?
  • What does it mean?
  • What are some examples

 

For a verb

  • What does it describe?
  • What is it like?
  • What are some examples?

 

Semantic Feature Analysis

Readers are helped to link words through a relationship matrix.

Semantically similar words are written down the y-axis.

Semantic features are written across the top. 

 

Semantic Features

Properties or meanings that may be shared by the semantically similar words.

A discussion ensues designed to determine if the properties fit the words, and the value is in the discussion itself.

 

Venn Diagrams

These allow students to compare and contrast two concepts

 

Experiences with synonyms and antonyms

Matching, substitution, and choosing between similar synonyms provide lots of practice.

 

Introduce a thesaurus:  List all words students can think of about a topic.  Have them write a story about the topic without using any of the words.  Writing Haiku will also necessitate using a thesaurus.(5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables)  Use the Thesaurus to find a synonym for a word that they want to use that will give the required number of syllables.

 

Antonym activity:  Create sets of antonyms on cards, make them matcheable by putting stickers on the back, connecting the two words, and then cut them apart. Students line them up with antonyms partners, then turn them over to check.

 

Experiences with Multiple Meanings of Words.

 

P. 319 shares a teacher made multiple meaning bingo game.

 

Increase vocabulary learning through writing

Begin with a prompt for a sentence based on the story just read. Students complete the sencence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Independent Word Learning from Text 320 – 327

Incidental Learning

Some believe that the more widely one reads, the more your vocabulary grows. Research shows this to be true particularly with 6 – 10 exposures to a word..  Others don’t agree.  Poor readers need to be taught how to deal with new vocabulary in independent reading.

 

Knowledge of word meaning can improve reading.  Reading can improve knowledge of word meaning.

 

Ways to encourage interest in reading:

  1. use interest inventories to help you choose short books and magazine articles .
  2. Have Sustained silent reading with time for sharing.
  3. Keep index cards and student write short review and rate. Students can check reviews when getting a new book. (Use technology and keep a data base)
  4. Read aloud to students. Having students retell the story immediately after reading it aloud results in vocabulary gains.
  5. Use movies of children’s and adolescent’s books to excite interest.
  6. Commercial audio tapes
  7. Student book club
  8. Use books that lend themselves to lessons on word meaning.
  9. Have lots of books for students to check out.
  10. have students dramatize stories
  11. Use readers theater
  12. Use expository texts
  13. Suggest books with like-sex protagonists for reluctant readers.
  14. Poetry:  use limericks and other humorous poetry.

 

Books to Read Aloud to Reluctant Students

Source:  Instructing Students Who Have Literary Problems

pg 323-324

 

                                   

The Ghost Rock Mystery         

Grades 4, 5, 6

Really scary.  Leaves you “hanging: at the end of each chapter as something awful is about to happen.  A good one to start the year with.  Also available in paperback.

The Snake Who Went to         

  School  Grades 3, 4, 5, 6

Funny.  A snake gets loose in the school.  Isn’t captured for several days, and is the cause of a number of wild happenings.

Casey, the Utterly Impossible Horse

            Grades 3, 4, 5, 6

 

Ridiculously funny; a horse that talks.

 

All Pippi Longstocking books:   Pippi Longstocking: Pippi in the south Seas; Pippi Goes       on Board  Grades 3, 4, 5, 6         

Even the teacher will laugh while reading these books.  Pippi’s father is the king of a cannibal island and her mother is dead, so she lives alone in a house of Sweden with her horse, her

monkey, and a chest full of gold.  And she does anything she wants to do.

 

 

Julie of the Wolves  Grades 5 and 6

 

 

Newbery Award Winner. Exciting, interesting, scary.  An Eskimo girl is saved from starvation when a pack of wolves allows her to share their food and shelter.  Realistic.

 

The House of the Sixty Fathers  Grades 5 and 6

 

Frightening, but realisticaly told story that takes place during the Japanese occupation of China during World War II when a boy becomes separated from his family and attempts to find them.  Runner-up for the Newbery Award.

 

The Matchlock  Gun

            Grades 3, 4, 5, 6

 

A picture book for older children.  Very exciting story and  by Indians during the French and Indian Wars.  A Newbery Award Winner.

 

 

Some Books to Read Aloud to Middle School Students

 

Some of the books suggested are most suitable for reading aloud to younger middle school students; some are better for use with older middle-school pupils; others are suitable for any student of middle-school age.  Teachers should skim the first chapter of the book and read the information presented on the dust jacket to determine if a suggested book is suitable for the learners in their classes.

 

1.  Best Short Stories, Editor                           

2.  How to Eat Fried Worms, Thomas Rockwell

3.  Fifty-Two Miles of Terror.  Ruth and Robert Carlson

4.  Encyclopedia Brown Takes a Case, Donald Sobe

5.  Passport to Freedom, Dorothy Bonneli

6.  Ben and Me, Robert Lawson

7.  Out of the Sun, Ben Bova

8.  Kareem!  Basketball Great, Arnold Hano

9.  The Wonderful Flight to the Mushroom Planet, Eleanor Cameron

10. New Sound, Leslie Waller

11. Julie of the Wolves, Jean George

12. Follow My Leader, James B. Garfield

13. Old Yeller, Fred Gipson

14. The Lost Ones, Ian Cameron

15. Island of the Blue Dolphins, Scott O’Dell

16. The Homet's Nest, Sally Watson

17. Earthfasts, William Mayne

18. Trouble for the Tabors, Barbara Goolden

19. The House of the Sixty Fathers, Meindert De Jong

20. Hunger for Racing, J.M. Douglas

21. Incident at Hawk's Hill, Allan Eckert

22. Pippi Longstocking, Astrid Lindgren

23. Journey Outside, Mary Q. Steele

24. Bully of Barkham Street, Mary Stolz

25. The Phantom Tolbooth, Norton Juster

26. My Name is Pable, Aimee Somerfelt

27. The Forgotten Door, Alexander Key

28. Escape to Witch Mountain, Alexander Key

29. A Winkle in Time, Madeline L'Engle

30. Funy Bananas, Georgess McHargue

31. The Witch of Blackbird Pond, Elizabeth George Speare

32. The Sound of Coaches, Leon Garfield

33. The Gift, Peter Dickinson

34. Eskimo Boy, Pepaluk Fruchen

35. The Yearling, Marjorie Rawlings

 

Help students learn to use context to determine meanings of words when it is helpful.

 

Use think-aloud to model how you would use clues in the text to determine the meaning of  a word.

 

Increase Dictionary Skills

Play, If you _______________ would you ___________, ______________, or ______________, where you put the new word in the first blank, and 3 different choices in the others.

 

LEARNING WORDS FROM ORAL LANGUAGE ENCOUNTERS

(pp. 333-336)

 

Real Experiences –

using real pictures to experience the object, activity, etc.

 

Student's first thoughts to come to mind is probably interpreted different than visual the real experiences.

 

    EX.  Cow-boy

           Field Trip

           Fire-truck

 

A second way to capitalize on real experiences without the impracticalities of frequent or elaborate excursions is to use experiences students have had in common outside in school.

 

Teachers must also remember the importance of time on task and the specific purpose for providing new experiences, which is to help students expand their meaning vocabularies through development of new concepts and the acquisition of new labels (words) for old concepts.

 

Vicarious Experience

an indirect experience.

 

    EX.  Volcano erupt: never directly seen it vs. viewing a film, magazine, or textbook.

 

Pictures may be shown to develop concepts before students read a story or article.

 

Pictures sets designed to help students explore and use new words are on the market.

 


 

Vol 1, Issue 12                                                                             April 5, 2004

 

PREREADING STRATEGY

 

Story Impressions

 

 

Story impressions are hints of the plot of a narrative piece that give the students clues about what the story they are going to read is about.  The following is an example of a story impression for the short story, The Tell-Tale Heart by E.A. Poe.  This strategy is especially helpful for struggling students, to give them a chance to get past the difficult vocabulary and still understand the story.

 

Story Impression:

 

house

 

 


old man

 

 


young man

 

 


hatred

 

 


ugly eye

 

 


death

 

tub, blood, knife

 

 


buried

 

 


floor

 

 


police

 

 


heartbeat

 

 


guilt

 

 


crazy

 

 


confession

 


Somebody Wanted But So Organizer

Name __________________________________________________ Date____________Title _____________________________________________________

Somebody

Wanted

But

So

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sample Somebody Wanted But So Sentences for The Three Little Pigs.  Read each line across the chart.

Somebody

Wanted

But

So

The Wolf

wanted to eat a pig for dinner

but they had all built houses

so he blew down the straw house.

The little pig who lived in the straw house

wanted to live

he had no house

so he ran to his brother's house which he had just constructed of sticks.

The Wolf

still wanted something to eat

but the pigs were in the stick house

so he huffed and he puffed until he blew down the house made of sticks.

The 2 pigs

wanted to live to wallow in another mud bog

but they had no house now

so they ran to their other brother's home which was sturdily made of bricks.

The pigs

wanted to eat their dinner because they were very hungry by now

but they hadn't had time to prepare dinner

so they made a fire and put a big pot of water on it to cook soup.

The wolf

wanted to survive

but the pigs were in a brick house which he couldn't blow down

So he climbed down the chimney.

And you know the rest of this sad story.  The wolf had no dinner that night.